بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
The Name of Allaah As-Samad is mentioned once in Surat al-Ikhlaas
Allaah (Ta’ala) says:
قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
“Say [O Muhammad (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)]: “He is Allaah, (the) One. Allaah-us-Samad [the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks)].”
The meaning of the Name with regards to Allaah (Ta’ala):
I) Ibn Jarir (Rahimahullaah) said: “The interpreters differed regarding the meaning of the Name “As-Samad”. Some of them said that it means the One Who neither eats nor drinks. Mujaahid said that As-Samad is the One Who has no inside (solid, not hollow).
II) Ash-Sha’bi said that As-Samad is the One Who doesn’t eat or drink.
III) Ikrimah said: ‘As-Samad is the One Who nothing comes out from, Who does not give birth, and Who was not born.’
IV) Others said: ‘As-Samad is the Master, Who is Perfect in His Sovereignty.'” [Jami’ul-Bayaan]
V) Az-Zajjaj said: “He is the Master, Whom all of creation depends upon for their needs and their requests.”
VI) Abu Waa’il said: “As-Samad is the Master, Whose control is complete.”
It is said that As-Samad is the Eternal, the One Who Remains after the end of the whole creation.
Shaykh Ash-Shinqeeti (Rahimahullaah) said: “The Arabs call the great master, As-Samad and also the thing which is solid, not hollow (has no inside). Allaah (Ta’ala) is the Master, the only resort at times of distress and need. He is sanctified and purified from the attributes of the creation, such as eating food and so forth. Exalted be He above that.”[Adwa’ al-Bayaan]
The Impact of belief in this Noble Name:
All of the aforementioned statements are correct in describing Allaah (Ta’ala). He is the Master, Whom all of creation depends upon for their needs. He is the One, Who is perfect in all aspects of nobility and authority, Who is perfect in His Sovereignty. He is As-Samad, Who has no inside, Who neither eats nor drinks. He is the One Who remains after His creation. [At-Tabari and Tafseer Ibn Katheer]
Al-Baghawi said: “There is no Samad in the world of existence except Allaah (Ta’ala), the Great, the Able to do everything (Omnipotent). It is a Name particular to Allaah; He is singled out with it. To Him belong the most Beautiful Names and Noble Attributes. Nothing is like unto Him. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” [Ma’alim at-Tanzeel]
The impact of belief of these meanings on the hearts of the believers:
1) This Name implies great attributes and beautiful praises for our Lord (Ta’ala) and this should only be for the One Whose mastership has reached the utmost perfection and His Grace is great, and this is Allaah Alone.
➡️ It is said that As-Samad is the One Who does not eat or drink, and He is as such, for He is Rich, free from all needs. This is because of His perfect Attributes as He (Ta’ala) says in Surat al-An’aam (6:14):“Say (O Muhammad Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “Shall I take as a Wali (helper, protector, Lord or God) any other than Allaah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth? And it is He Who feeds but is not fed.” Say: “Verily, I am commanded to be the first of those who submit themselves to Allaah (as Muslims).” And be not you (O Muhammad Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) of the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah).”
➡️ And He (Ta’ala) says in Surat adh-Dhariyat (51:56-58):
“And I (Allaah) created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone). I seek not any provision from them (i.e. provision for themselves or for My creatures) nor do I ask that they should feed Me (i.e. feed themselves or My creatures). Verily, Allaah is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.”
➡️ Allaah (Ta’ala) refuted the claim of the Christians about the divinity of Jesus (‘Alayhis salaam), saying:
“The Messiah [‘Isaa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary), was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother [Maryam (Mary)] was a Siddiqah [i.e. she believed in the words of Allaah and His Books]. They both used to eat food (as any other human being, while Allaah does not eat).” [Surat al-Ma’idah 5:75]
This verse indicates that the true God is in no need of food and drink.
2) It is said that the meaning of As-Samad is the One Who begets not, nor was He begotten. This is the truth. In many verses, Allaah (Ta’ala) negated from Himself as to having a peer or similitude and there is no one equal to Him or comparable to Him.
✔ Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat Maryam (19:65):
“Do you know of any who is similar to Him? (of course none is similar or coequal or comparable to Him, and He has none as partner with Him).”
✔ He (Ta’ala) also says in Surat al-Ikhlaas (112:4):
“And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.”
If it is affirmed that Allaah has no equal, or anyone similar to Him, then it is untrue to come from anything or that anything comes out of Him; because that thing will not come out except from something of its same nature.
Accordingly, to have a son is an attribute that is negated for Allaah, because the son will not come out except after having a wife, and the existence of a wife is negated due to the dissimilarity of anything to Allaah; therefore, as a consequence, the existence of a son is negated as well.
✔ Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat al-An’aam (6:101):
“He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife? He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.”
3) As-Samad is the Master, Who is perfect in all aspects of nobility and authority.
🌻 Ibn ‘Abbaas (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) said: 🌻
“He is the Master, Who is perfect in His Sovereignty; the Most Noble, Who is perfect in His Nobility; the Most Magnificent, Who is perfect in His Magnificence; the Most Forbearing, Who is perfect in His Forbearance; the All-Knowing, Who is perfect in His Knowledge, and the Most-Wise, Who is perfect in His Wisdom. He is the One Who is perfect in all aspects of nobility and authority. He is Allaah, Glory be unto Him. These attributes are not befitting to anyone other than Him. He has no coequal and nothing is like Him. Glory be to Allaah, the One, the Irresistible.”
4) It is said that As-Samad is the Eternal who will never perish. This is the truth, undoubtedly, He (Ta’ala) is the First, nothing is before Him, Eternal and never ending, as He (Ta’ala) says about His Noble Self in
✔Surat al-Hadeed (57:3):
“He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him), the Most High (nothing is above Him) and the Most Near (nothing is nearer than Him).”
✔ Allaah (Ta’ala) also says in Surat ar-Rahman (55:26-27):
“Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will remain forever.”All the aforementioned Attributes of Sovereignty and Perfection remain eternally attributable to Him. No changes or deficiency or imbalance could befall His Attributes as is the case with the creation.
The reality of As Samadaniyyah as regards Him (Ta’ala) is by being Eternal and Self-Sufficient and the need of everything of Him. It is an attribute for His Essence.
5) The servants should not resort to anyone except unto Him, nor should they ask except from Him. He is the Master, As-Samad, nothing is above Him, in Whose Hand is the good and He is Omnipotent.
☘ Al-Qurtubi said:
“It is incumbent upon every adult to know that neither Samadaniyyah nor Oneness belong to anyone except to Allaah Alone. No one is turned to or resorted to in one’s needs except Him.”
📗 [Al-Kitab al-Asna]
6) It is quoted in the Saheeh traditions that Surat al-Ikhlaas is equal to one third of the Qur’an.
🌸 Abu Sa’eid al-Khudri (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allaah (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to his Companions: “Is one of you not able to recite a third of the Qur’an in a single night?” This was something that was difficult for them and they said: “Which of us is able to do that, O Messenger of Allaah?” So he (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) replied, “Allaah is the One, As-Samad” is a third of the Qur’an.” [Al-Bukhaari]
🌸 In another narration it is reported: “Verily, Allaah has divided the Qur’an into three parts, and He (Ta’ala) has made “He is Allaah, (the) One,” one of the parts of the Qur’an.” [Muslim]
“This Surah comprises of two of Allaah’s Names which imply all aspects of perfection that are not found in any Surah other than it and they are: Al-Ahad and As-Samad. They indicate the Oneness of the Noble Essence which is attributed with all attributes of perfection.
It is explained as follows:
🔸️ Al-Ahad makes one become aware of His special existence which no one shares with Him.
🔸️ As-Samad makes one become aware of all His Perfect Attributes, because He is the One, Whose Sovereignty has reached the utmost. So all requests are referred to Him and from Him and this is not fulfilled except in one who is perfect in his attributes and that does not befit anyone except Allaah (Ta’ala). Since this Surah comprises the knowledge about the sanctified Essence, it is considered one third of the knowledge, because the complete knowledge is about the Attributes of Essence (Dhaat) and Attributes of Action (Fi’l).'” [Al-Fat-h]
⬇️ It is reported in the book “Al-Asna” that, “Say: ‘He is Allaah, (the) One'”, is considered one third of the Qur’an because of this Name, i.e. As-Samad, which is not mentioned in any other Surah except this Surah and also the Name Ahad. And Allaah knows best.
⬇️ It is also mentioned that the Qur’an is revealed comprising of three thirds: one third of it is rules (legislations), one third of it is promises and threats, and one third of it is Names and Attributes.
“Say: ‘He is Allaah, (the) One,'” has joined the one third of these three thirds which is the Names and Attributes. So it is one third of the Qur’an.
🌸 The following Hadeeth alludes to this interpretation: Abu ad-Dardaa’ (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) narrated that the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“Verily, Allaah has divided the Qur’an into three parts. He (Ta’ala) made ‘Say: He is Allaah, (the) One,’ one part of the Qur’an.”
Source: An-Nahj al-Asma’ fee Sharh Asma’u-Allaah ul-Husnaa, by Shaykh Muhammed Al-Humoud an-Najdi.